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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 1: Traditional Chinese medicine in ameliorating diabetic nephropathy via modulating gut microbiota. Traditional Chinese medicine modulates the structure and composition of gut microbiota and then affects the production of microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids, indoxyl-sulfate and so on. Some of these metabolites can improve renal function, while others can lead to renal injury. This regulation process is called “gut-kidney axis”. DKD is often accompanied by podocyte injury and inflammation. Some pathway such as TGF-β/ EMT, p38 MAPK/NF-κB, TLR4/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad often involved in the development of DKD. Traditional Chinese medicine can alleviate the symptoms of DKD by modulating gut microbiota and its metabolites. DKD: Diabetic kidney disease; EMT: Epithelial mesenchymal transition; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinases; NF-κB: Nuclear transcription factor-κB; TCM: Traditional Chinese medicine; TGF-β: Transforming growth factor-β; TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4; Smad: Small mothers against decapentaplegic

Figure 1: Traditional Chinese medicine in ameliorating diabetic nephropathy via modulating gut microbiota. Traditional Chinese medicine modulates the structure and composition of gut microbiota and then affects the production of microbiota-derived metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids, indoxyl-sulfate and so on. Some of these metabolites can improve renal function, while others can lead to renal injury. This regulation process is called “gut-kidney axis”. DKD is often accompanied by podocyte injury and inflammation. Some pathway such as TGF-β/ EMT, p38 MAPK/NF-κB, TLR4/NF-κB and TGF-β1/Smad often involved in the development of DKD. Traditional Chinese medicine can alleviate the symptoms of DKD by modulating gut microbiota and its metabolites. DKD: Diabetic kidney disease; EMT: Epithelial mesenchymal transition; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinases; NF-κB: Nuclear transcription factor-κB; TCM: Traditional Chinese medicine; TGF-β: Transforming growth factor-β; TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4; Smad: Small mothers against decapentaplegic