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Figure 5: Tangshen formula blocks activation of the transforming growth factor β1/Lnc RNA MEG3/Smad3 signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Tangshen formula treatment inhibits expression of the Lnc RNA MEG3 (a), immunohistochemistry of transforming growth factor β1 and pSmad2/3(original magnification (×400), scale bars, 50 μm) (b), quantitative analysis of transforming growth factor β1, quantitative analysis of nucleated pSmad2/3 in glomeruli, and tubulointerstitium (c), western blot of Smad3 and pSmad3 (d), and semiquantitative analysis of pSmad3 (e). Data are expressed as means ± standard error for each group of 6 rats. ^{#}P < 0.05, ^{###}P < 0.001, diabetic kidney disease group versus Sham group; *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.001, diabetic kidney disease + Tangshen formula group versus diabetic kidney disease group 
