|GUIDELINE AND CONSENSUS
|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 13
Interpretation of the Expert Consensus on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Omicron Variant Infections
Bangjiang Fang1, Xinhui Wang2, Shaobai Wang3, Li Kong4, Yong Ye5, Hua Liu6, Wensheng Qi7, Wanyan Liu8, Xucheng Li9, Guiwei Li10, Xiaorong Chen11, Dechao Zhang12, Hong Su3, Zhixu Yang2, Jinlu Zhang13, Wen Zhang14, Shuang Zhou15, Ruanjin Zhao16, Yuxia Mo17, Qun Liang18, Wei Huang19, Changhong Zhou20
1 Department of Emergency, Longhua Hospital of Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine; Institute of Emergency and Critical Care, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai; Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital Affiliated to Southwest Medicine University, Luzhou, China
2 Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
3 The American Traditional Chinese Medicine Society, New York, USA
4 Department of Emergency, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China
5 Department of Emergency, Yunnan Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, China
6 The Supervision and Management Department of Chinese Medicine Services Shanghai Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
7 Department of Emergency, Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Beijing, China
8 Department of Emergency, Jilin City Integrative Traditional and Western Medicine Hospital, Jilin, China
9 Department of Emergency, Wuhan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, China
10 Department of Emergency, First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China
11 Department of Integrative Traditional and Western Medicine, Shanghai Municipal Public Health Center, Shanghai, China
12 United Alliance of New York State Licensed Acupuncturists, New York, USA
13 Institute of Military political work, Academy of Military Sciences PLA China, Beijing, China
14 Department of Emergency, Longhua Hospital of Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
15 College of Acumox and Tuina, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
16 H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, USA
17 Department of Pneumology, Shenzhen Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Guangzhou, China
18 Intensive Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China
19 Canadian Chinese Medicine Association, Toronto, Canada
20 Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA
|Date of Submission||24-May-2022|
|Date of Decision||27-Aug-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||26-Oct-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||20-Dec-2022|
Dr. Changhong Zhou
Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck St., Boston 02115, MA
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 remains a global problem. Current data indicate that the Omicron variant causes mild clinical symptoms and few severe cases and deaths. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has demonstrated definite efficacy and distinct advantages in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, by focusing on the pathogenic characteristics of the Omicron variant, the Emergency Professional Committee of the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, Emergency and Critical Care Institute of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and American Traditional Chinese Medicine Society have brought together clinical experts on the TCM prevention and control of COVID-19 to formulate an expert consensus on the prevention and treatment of Omicron variant infections based on the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 9). This review provides a comprehensive Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The main symptoms of interpretation of this expert consensus, covering topics such as discussing the pathogenic characteristics of the Omicron variant from the TCM perspective of “epidemic disease of pathogenic wind,” prevention plans for vulnerable populations, and stratified treatment plans for infected populations. We hope that this review can serve as a reference for the clinical prevention and treatment of the Omicron variant.
Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019, Omicron variant, traditional Chinese medicine, prevention and treatment, interpretation of expert consensus
|How to cite this article:|
Fang B, Wang X, Wang S, Kong L, Ye Y, Liu H, Qi W, Liu W, Li X, Li G, Chen X, Zhang D, Su H, Yang Z, Zhang J, Zhang W, Zhou S, Zhao R, Mo Y, Liang Q, Huang W, Zhou C. Interpretation of the Expert Consensus on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Omicron Variant Infections. Integr Med Nephrol Androl 2022;9:13
|How to cite this URL:|
Fang B, Wang X, Wang S, Kong L, Ye Y, Liu H, Qi W, Liu W, Li X, Li G, Chen X, Zhang D, Su H, Yang Z, Zhang J, Zhang W, Zhou S, Zhao R, Mo Y, Liang Q, Huang W, Zhou C. Interpretation of the Expert Consensus on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Omicron Variant Infections. Integr Med Nephrol Androl [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 28];9:13. Available from: https://journal-imna.com//text.asp?2022/9/1/13/360626
COVID-19 include fever, fatigue, and dry cough, with severe cases rapidly progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, refractory metabolic acidosis, and coagulopathy. The COVID-19 outbreak was declared a global pandemic at the end of 2019. As of April 10, 2022, more than 490 million people have been infected with COVID-19 worldwide, with over 6 million deaths. Since the beginning of the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has been continuously evolving and continuously mutating. The Omicron variant spreads quickly worldwide to become the dominant variant and is 20 times more infectious than the original strain. The Omicron variant is characterized by rapid and occult transmission, with a relatively low proportion of severe and critical cases. Data from China suggest that the Omicron variant causes mild clinical symptoms and few severe cases, and the clinical symptoms improve quickly after treatment. This reflects the following points: (1) the systematic implementation of a vaccination program in the general population, (2) the lower virulence of the Omicron variant, and (3) the effectiveness of China’s COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment protocol in preventing the transformation and progression of asymptomatic and mild cases.
To provide effective guidance for the clinical prevention and treatment of the Omicron variant, the Emergency Professional Committee of the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, Emergency and Critical Care Institute of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and American Traditional Chinese Medicine Society have brought together clinical experts on the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prevention and control of COVID-19 to formulate an expert consensus on the prevention and treatment of Omicron variant infections based on the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 9). This expert consensus was published in April 2022.
This protocol aims to highlight the implementation of measures appropriate for different seasons while considering the pathogenic characteristics of the Omicron variant and to combine and pay equal attention to prevention and treatment. We propose different prevention plans for different risk groups, including TCM treatments formulated based on the principles of “symptom elimination, termination of disease progression, and rapid negative conversion” for patients with asymptomatic, mild, and moderate COVID-19, while also focusing on preventing the transmission of existing disease.
| Implementing Seasonably Appropriate Treatments for The Prevention and Treatment of an “Epidemic Disease of Pathogenic Wind”|| |
The principle of implementing treatments appropriate to the three etiological factors (i.e., season, locality, and patient) is a vital component in the conceptualization of TCM diagnosis and treatment and is a distinct advantage of TCM. This principle stresses that TCM clinical analysis should consider the patient’s factors (e.g., sex, age, and physical fitness), region of disease onset, and season of disease onset. In China, Omicron BA.2 was first discovered locally on February 17, 2022, followed by the emergence of sporadic cases, with clinical presentations that were significantly different from those of the original SARS-CoV-2 and Delta variants. According to expert judgment, the Omicron variant still belonged to the category of “epidemic disease,” characterized as an epidemic pathogen mixed with “abnormal weather in the four seasons.” The original SARS-CoV-2 infection was a “damp-toxin epidemic disease,” which is a type of “pathogenic dampness,” and its core feature is the accumulation of damp toxin in the lungs. In this round of transmission, the Omicron variant spread throughout China during spring and exhibited distinct pathogenic characteristics of “pathogenic wind.” Early-stage symptoms include exogenous wind-cold and wind invasion of lung defenses, manifesting as headache, low-grade fever, occasional moderate-grade fever, cough, nasal congestion, and dry cough. Middle-stage symptoms include lung heat, cough, and yellow sputum, whereas late-stage symptoms include dual damage of qi and yin.
“Wind” is the dominant qi of spring, and “pathogenic wind” is the leading pathogen among the six exogenous pathogenic factors. Thus, diseases caused by pathogenic wind generally occur in spring. According to Su Wen: Zhi Zhenyao Dalun (Essential Questions: Great Theory on Crucial Principles), “terminal yin, when governing the heavens, turns into wind transformation, governing the earth, into sour transformation.” The wind is a type of pathogenic yang characterized by its action of opening and dispersion and tendency to invade body parts of yang. Invasion of the human body by pathogenic wind can cause the opening of interstices, which increases the vulnerability of the head and muscle surfaces and lung defenses. The wind is prone to movement and swift changes and may invade the body via the mouth, nose, or interstices. Its timing is irregular, its onset is rapid, and its symptoms are indeterminate, giving rise to acute and rapidly changing diseases. Furthermore, pathogenic qi, which is compatible with pathogenic wind, also exhibits the features of wind. According to Su Wen: Feng Lun (Essential Questions: On Wind), “wind is the chief cause of all diseases. Regarding its alteration leading to other diseases, there is no constant rule, but the cause of all diseases is wind qi.” Thus, the invasion of pathogenic wind alone does not lead to disease onset; instead, it is often combined with coldness, dampness, dryness, heat, and other pathogenic qi to cause disease. Therefore, “wind is the chief cause of all diseases.” The features of pathogenic wind also confirm that the Omicron variant is characterized by rapid and occult transmission with strong penetrability, disease onset at lung defenses, variable transformation, and frequent intermixing of pathogenic dampness. The following are the two main methods for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic wind: (1) early prevention and control and (2) prevention of transformation during disease treatment. Therefore, this expert consensus emphasizes the combination and equal emphasis on prevention and treatment.
| Early Prevention in Vulnerable Populations With Equal Emphasis on Prevention and Treatment|| |
Theory of preventative medicine in TCM
Great importance has always been attached to disease prevention in TCM, with an emphasis on prevention before disease onset, thus forming a unique theory of preventative medicine. According to Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic), “When vital qi is strong, pathogenic qi would not disturb the balance of the body,” and “where pathogens accumulate, qi would be deficient.” Thus, the strength of one’s vital qi is a fundamental condition for disease onset, and the key to prevention lies in enhancing the body’s vital qi. According to Huangdi Neijing: Su Wen (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic: Essential Questions), “when teaching people in ancient times, the sages will mention that all deficient pathogens and sinister wind should be avoided in time, and people should cultivate a quiet mind against any distractions, which can thus help soothe the genuine qi and guard their spirits intact. Thus, how can any disease develop?” Therefore, as the Omicron variant rages through the population, one should maintain a calm and quiet mind, maintain an optimistic and cheerful heart, and avoid excessive emotional changes to nourish one’s genuine qi. In addition, external pathogenic factors must be promptly avoided, which entails proper mask wearing, maintaining social distance, frequent hand washing, having a balanced diet and a regular daily routine, and performing moderate exercise without causing over-exhaustion. By building on a long history of the practice, physicians across ages have developed several effective methods to ensure physical fitness, including Wu Qin Xi (i.e., five-animal Qigong exercises), Tai-chi, and Baduanjin Qigong.
Strengthening vital qi and eliminating pathogens with TCM to assist in epidemic prevention
The expert consensus also recommends the implementation of TCM prevention plans. For example, the external use of anti-epidemic TCM sachets is an external treatment method that uses the inhalation of medicinal scents to dissipate stasis and resolve dampness, refresh the mind, open orifices, prevent diseases, and eliminate contaminants. This can be achieved by using ingredients such as Herba Pogostemonis (Huo Xiang), Herba Eupatorii (Pei Lan), Radix Angelicae Dahuricae (Bai Zhi), Borneolum Syntheticum (Bing Pian), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (Ai Ye), and Rhizoma Acori Graminei (Shi Chang Pu). Anti-epidemic sachets can be created by selecting effective aromatic TCM herbs tailored to suit local conditions. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that inhalation of aromatic odors emitted by TCM sachets via the mouth and nose can stimulate the olfactory nerve in the brain, promote an increase in immunoglobulin levels, and improve the body’s ability to resist viral invasion, thereby playing a role in the prevention of infectious diseases. Furthermore, the volatile oils contained in aromatic TCM can accumulate in high concentrations in the vicinity of the individual, which can exert some level of antibacterial and antiviral effects., As a preventative measure, the wearing of aromatic TCM sachets is more likely to affect the body’s internal environment, promote self-regulation, and improve disease resistance. During the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic, wearing aromatic TCM sachets has been shown to produce good preventative effects.
Physical deficiency, dampness, and insecurity of lung defenses can lead to pathogenic wind diseases. In this expert consensus, different oral medication regimens were formulated for different populations. For the general population, the consensus recommends the use of Radix Astragali (Huang Qi), Rhizoma Atractylodis (Cang Zhu), Huo Xiang, and Herba Menthae (Bo He) to supplement qi, secure the exterior, dispel wind, and resolve dampness. For the elderly, vulnerable, and immunocompromised populations, it recommends the use of Huang Qi, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (Jin Yin Hua), Radix Panacis Quinquefolii (Xi Yang Shen), and Cang Zhu to supplement qi, nourish yin, dispel wind, and clear heat. For close contact with high-risk groups, Radix Saposhnikoviae (Fang Feng) and Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Da Huang) can be added to further enhance the effects of securing the exterior, clearing heat, and eliminating toxins. For clinically treated patients with COVID-19, raw Radix Astragali (Sheng Huang Qi), Radix Glehniae (Bei Sha Shen), Cang Zhu, processed Radix et Rhizoma Rhei (Shu Da Huang), Herba Verbenae (Ma Bian Cao) (or Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati [Hu Zhang]), Bo He, Jin Yin Hua, and Rhizoma Cyrtomii (Guan Zhong) can be used to further enhance the effects of clearing heat, eliminating toxins, and removing dampness to prevent reinfection with the Omicron variant.
| Stratified Intervention of Infected Populations and Prevention of Transformation in Existing Disease|| |
The “truncation and reversal” method proposed in the early clinical treatment plan for the COVID-19 epidemic can effectively shorten the course of the disease in asymptomatic patients and block disease progression in mild, moderate, severe, and critical cases. With the current prevalence of the Omicron variant in China, asymptomatic patients account for more than 80% of all cases, whereas severe and critical cases are rare. Hence, this expert consensus has proposed plans for syndrome differentiation and medication regimens for asymptomatic, mild, and moderate cases, specifically targeting the features of the Omicron variant.
During the outbreak of the Omicron variant, there was a significant increase in infection rates among children, who were also predominantly asymptomatic and experienced mild syndromes, exhibiting syndromes that were essentially consistent with those in adults. Thus, the treatment of pediatric patients can incorporate the clinical syndromes and physiological features of children while also referring to the consensus for prevention and treatment in adults. Data from Australia have shown that the hospitalization rate among children during the outbreak of the Delta variant was 1.26%, and the hospitalization rate among children during the outbreak of the Omicron variant was only half of that figure.
Asymptomatic cases: Truncation and reversal, dispelling wind, and securing the exterior
Although asymptomatic patients do not present with clinical symptoms, the observation that their tongue coatings are mostly yellow, thin, and greasy can be combined with the season of disease outbreak to classify such patients under the scope of “pathogenic wind.” The “truncation and reversal” treatment method can be employed to dispel wind, clear heat, and eliminate toxins. The recommended TCM prescriptions include Yinqiao and Yupingfeng powder, with modifications as required. The TCM ingredients include Jin Yin Hua, Fructus Forsythiae (Lian Qiao), Rhizoma Phragmitis (Lu Gen), Bo He, Hu Zhang, Cang Zhu, Xi Yang Shen (or Bei Sha Shen), Da Huang, Fang Feng, and Radix Glycyrrhizae (Gan Cao). The recommended Chinese patent medicines include Shufeng Jiedu capsules (granules) and Huoxiang Zhengqi capsules (liquid, pills, oral liquid).
Mild cases: Dual relief of the interior and exterior, dispelling wind, and draining dampness
Patients with mild Omicron infection mostly present with symptoms such as fever, fatigue, heaviness of the head and body, muscle aches, sore throat, chest tightness, cough, thick white or yellow phlegm, light red or red tongue, thin yellow or greasy yellow tongue coating, and rapid floating or rapid slippery pulse, thus exhibiting the syndrome of “damp-heat complicated by wind.” Some febrile patients may also exhibit aversion to cold, nasal congestion, nausea or vomiting, greasy white or thin white tongue coating, and slippery or soggy pulse, which is the syndrome of “cold-dampness stagnation in the lungs.” The treatment for all patients is the “dual relief of the exterior and interior.” For the syndrome of “damp-heat complicated by wind,” the method of treatment involves dispelling wind, draining dampness, clearing heat, and eliminating toxins. The recommended TCM prescriptions include Yinqiao powder and Xuanmai Ganju decoction, with modifications as required. The TCM ingredients include Jin Yin Hua, Lian Qiao, Lu Gen, Herba Artemisiae Apiaceae (Qing Hao), Hu Zhang, Ma Bian Cao, Cang Zhu, Herba Lophatheri (Zhu Ye), Herba Schizonepetae (Jing Jie), Radix Platycodi (Jie Geng), Fructus Arctii (Niu Bang Zi), Rhizoma Belamcandae (She Gan), Radix Scrophulariae (Xuan Shen), Flos Chrysanthemi (Ju Hua), Bo He, Huo Xiang, Xi Yang Shen (or Bei Sha Shen), Da Huang, and Gan Cao. The recommended Chinese patent medicines include Shufeng Jiedu capsules, Chailing Qingning capsules, Lianhua Qingwen capsules (granules), Yinqiao Jiedu capsules (tablets), Liushen pills (capsules), and Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid. For the syndrome of cold-dampness stagnation in the lungs, the treatment method involves supplementing qi, relieving the exterior, dispelling wind, and removing dampness. The recommended TCM prescription includes the Renshen Baidu drink, with modifications as required. The TCM ingredients include Radix Bupleuri (Chai Hu), Radix Ginseng (Ren Shen), Rhizoma Chuanxiong (Chuan Xiong), Poria cocos (Fu Ling), Fructus Aurantii (Zhi Qiao), Radix Peucedani (Qian Hu), Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii (Qiang Huo), Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (Du Huo), Cang Zhu, Hu Zhang, Fructus Xanthii (Cang Er Zi), Jie Geng, Huo Xiang, and Gan Cao.
Moderate cases: Dispersing the lungs and transforming dampness, purging the lungs, and eliminating toxins
Patients with moderate Omicron infection chiefly present with fever, sore throat, and respiratory symptoms, such as runny rose, and imaging findings of pulmonary inflammation. Based on their clinical manifestations, this expert consensus has divided these patients into two types: syndrome differentiation and treatment. Patients with the syndrome of heat-toxin accumulation in the lungs may exhibit fever, sore throat, cough, yellow phlegm, chest tightness, dyspnea, red tongue, greasy yellow or greasy white and slightly yellowish tongue coating, and slippery or rapid slippery pulse. The treatment method involves clearing the lungs, relieving dyspnea, dispelling heat, and eliminating toxins. The recommended TCM prescriptions include the Maxing Shigan and Xuanbai Chengqi decoctions, with modifications as required. The TCM ingredients include Herba Ephedrae (Ma Huang), Semen Pruni Armeniacae (Xing Ren), Gypsum Fibrosum (Sheng Shi Gao), Da Huang, Pericarpium Trichosanthis (Gua Lou Pi), Lian Qiao, Lu Gen, Ma Bian Cao, Qing Hao, Hu Zhang, Semen Lepidii (Ting Li Zi), Radix Scutellariae Baicalensis (Huang Qin), She Gan, Pheretima (Di Long), Herba Leonuri (Yi Mu Cao), Bei Sha Shen (or Xi Yang Shen), and Raw Radix Glycyrrhizae (Sheng Gan Cao). The recommended Chinese patent medicines include Lianhua Qingwen granules (capsules), Huashi Baidu granules, and Xuanfei Baidu granules. Patients with the syndrome of cold-damp obstructing the lungs may exhibit fever, aversion to cold or no fever, cough, white phlegm, fatigue, chest tightness, epigastric distention or nausea, loose stool, white or greasy white tongue coating, and a deep and thready or soggy pulse. The TCM ingredients include Ma Huang, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata (Fu Zi), Herba Asari (Xi Xin), Cang Zhu, Huo Xiang, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Hou Po), Xing Ren, Rhizoma Zingiberis (Gan Jiang), Huang Qi, Exocarpium Citri Rubrum (Ju Hong), Rhizoma Pinelliae (Ban Xia), and Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata (Zhi Gan Cao).
Treatment of severe and critical cases
During the extreme stage, if the disease is not properly treated, the heat and dampness cause the lung to close, with the possibility of internal closure and external prolapse. Reports on patients infected with the Omicron variant from Jilin, Shanghai, Tianjin, Shandong, and other areas have suggested that severe and critical cases are relatively rare during this outbreak. Some experts have advocated the implementation of “precision treatment with an individualized prescription for each patient.” For specific treatment plans, please refer to the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 9)” to perform TCM syndrome differentiation of severe and critically ill patients according to their specific condition. Patients with epidemic toxin blocking the lung pattern present with fever, cough with yellow phlegm and/or bloody sputum, mouth pain, constipation, and short red urine. The recommended TCM prescription is the Huashi Baidu formula. For patients whose type is blazing of both qi and ying patterns, internal heat will be more evident, and these patients present with high fever with polydipsia, tachypnea, shortness of breath, delirium, unconsciousness, blurred vision accompanied by macules and papules, hematemesis, epistaxis, or convulsion of the four limbs. The tongue is crimson with little or no coating. The pulse is deep, thready, rapid, floating, large, and rapid. The TCM ingredients include Sheng Shi Gao, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (Zhi Mu Huang), Rehmanniae Radix (Sheng Di Huang), Bubali Cornu (Shui Niu Jiao), Paeoniae Radix Rubra (Chi Shao), Xuan Shen, Lian Qiao, Moutan Cortex (Dan Pi), Coptidis Rhizoma (Huang Lian), Lophatheri Herba (Dan Zhu Ye), and Sheng Gan Cao.
Treatment of convalescent patients
The TCM syndromes of convalescent patients mainly include qi deficiency of the lungs and spleen and dual deficiency of qi and yin. Patients with qi deficiency of the lungs and spleen chiefly present with shortness of breath, fatigue, poor appetite, distention, and weak stool. Further, the tongue is light and fat, and the moss is white and greasy. The TCM ingredients include Ban Xia, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chen Pi), Codonopsis Pilosula (Dang Shen), Huang Qi, Bighead Atractylodes Rhizome (Chao Bai Zhu), Fu Ling, Huo Xiang, Fructus Amomi (Sha Ren), and Sheng Gan Cao. The typical symptoms of patients with dual deficiency of qi and yin are dry mouth, thirst, dry cough, and reduced phlegm. The recommended TCM ingredients for these patients include Adenophora tetraphylla (Nan Sha Shen), Bei Sha Shen, Adenophora tetraphylla (Mai Dong), Xi Yang Shen, Schisandra Chinensis (Wu Wei Zi), Sheng Shi Gao, Zhu Ye, Folium Mori (Sang Ye), Lu Gen, Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen), and Sheng Gan Cao.
Convalescent patients with residual pulmonary (interstitial) fibrosis may present with progressive dyspnea and tachypnea aggravated by activity, dark tongue, and rapid thready pulse. Such patients can be diagnosed with kidney qi deficiency syndrome, which may be accompanied by blood stasis and internal obstruction. The treatment method involves nourishing the lungs and kidneys, resolving phlegm, and dredging the collaterals, which can be accomplished using the Jinshui Liujun decoction, with modifications as required. The TCM ingredients include Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (Shu Di), Fu Ling, Ban Xia, Chen Pi, Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Dang Gui), Scolopendra (Wu Gong), Rhodiola (Hong Jing Tian), Wu Wei Zi, Fructus Corni (Shan Zhu Yu), Semen Persicae (Tao Ren), Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum (Chen Xiang), and Sheng Gan Cao. The recommended Chinese patent medicines include Bufei Huoxue capsules.
| Conclusion|| |
The expert consensus highlights the pathogenic characteristics of the Omicron variant: (1) The Omicron variant has a higher rate of infection and a shorter incubation period than Delta and the original coronavirus; (2) The Omicron variant causes mild clinical symptoms and few severe cases, and the clinical symptoms improve quickly after treatment. In view of the pathogenic characteristics of Omicron, this expert consensus proposes that attention must be paid to the early prevention of vulnerable populations with equal emphasis on prevention and treatment. For infected patients, from asymptomatic cases to confirmed cases (from mild to severe) the expert consensus recommends targeted treatment plans according to the principle of “dialectical treatment”. For Omicron variant, this expert consensus has achieved full coverage of various groups of people in different stages of prevention and treatment, and can effectively guide clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Conflicts of interest
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